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最后一次更新于2021年7月19日

第三人称有限公司: An Intimate POV (With Examples)

Contents

第三人称限量是一种叙事观点,从一个角色的紧密角度讲述了故事。它仍然主要使用he,,,,,,,,and他们代词,但创造了第一人称叙事的即时性和亲密关系,而不会“被困在主角的头上”。

InSteering the Craft,,,,Ursula Le Guin’s invaluable writing manual, she provides a succinct definition of this limited viewpoint:

Only what the viewpoint character knows, feels, perceives, thinks, guesses, hopes, remembers, etc., can be told. The reader can infer what other people feel and think only from what the viewpoint character observes of their behaviour.

在我们的文学观点指南的这一部分中,我们将分解从有限的角度写作的含义。我们还将提供一些指示,以最大程度地利用这两个世界中的最佳观点。

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第三人称有限的无限潜力

第三人称限制叙述者在当代小说中比其无所不知的对应物更为普遍。他们为故事带来了独特的品质,使这种观点在作者和读者中都流行。

与读者建立更大的亲密关系

Third person limited offers access to a character’s inner thoughts and emotions, much the same way that first-person narration does. As a result, it creates a sense of ‘narrative empathy,’ making it easier for readers to imagine themselves in the viewpoint character’s shoes — or as their confidante.

Example:安德的游戏Orson Scott卡

有限的观点示例|安德的游戏

在此示例中,Orson Scott卡的安德的游戏,我们可以窥视主角的思想。从他对他人行为的扣除(“但是恩德知道[...],彼得不会让他一个人呆着”)到恩德想象他受到彼得骚扰的情况,我们就在主角的头上。

当处理良好时,您可能会争辩说,第三人称限制比第一人称叙述更加亲密。您不是主角告诉您他们的故事,而是在某种程度上鼓励您体验这个故事作为主角。强大的东西!

Force your readers to engage with the story

Returning to LeGuin’s quote — “[t]he reader can infer what other people feel and think only from what the viewpoint character observes of their behaviour” — we see a big reason why this narrative mode is so popular. Because the limited narrator can only reveal what the viewport character observes, the reader often has to play detective. They have to take these observed details and connect the dots to understand what is happening.

示例:欧内斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)的“像白大象这样的山丘”

有限的观点示例|海明威In this extract, Hemingway doesn’t name his characters. He does, however, let us know how they are feeling: hot and irascible. By mentioning in the same breath that a) it was very hot, and b) the train wouldn’t come for forty minutes, we see that the characters are connecting these two facts. The reader, without even putting on their detective hat, will have deduced the physical discomfort both characters are in: the perfect context for a tense conversation!

Maintain a level of uncertainty and surprise

在谜团,悬念和惊悚片中,您通常会看到第三人称有限的叙述。与其他POV相比,这是一个自然的方式来讲述一个有很多未知数的故事,例如启示和情节曲折。

无所不知的叙述者,本质上知道s杀手是谁的谜团,但他们必须仔细省略细节,以保持神秘感。从这个意义上讲,无所不知的叙述者可能是不可靠的。但是,有限的叙述只能揭示观点字符所知道的,这使读者只能在主角发生时发现神秘感。如果观点字符对扭曲感到惊讶,那么读者也将是。

Example:一把风暴by George R.R. Martin

Limited POV example | Sword of StormsIn this section of一把风暴— which权力的游戏fans will know as “The Red Wedding” — the viewpoint character of Catelyn Stark is thrown for a loop when she and her family are betrayed by their allies. Thanks to this particular viewpoint, the reader shares in her shock, confusion, momentary hope, then despair.

Compared to first-person narrations which usually imply that the narrator survives to tell the tale, third person limited is highly conducive to uncertainty. In Catelyn Stark’s case, her time as a viewpoint character可能be coming to an end, but the reader won’t know that until it actually happens.

利用异常的客观叙述者

所不同的是,有一个关键的条子of distance between the protagonist and narrator, which will change the way the main character is portrayed. Maybe the protagonist has a nasty habit she wouldn’t readily reveal if the narration were left entirely to her. Maybe the narrator can “see” something happening behind the protagonist’s back a moment or two before the character realizes it.

Example:The Lie Tree弗朗西斯·哈丁(Frances Hardinge)

有限的观点示例|The Lie Tree

InThe Lie Tree,我们的主角是一个维多利亚时代的女孩,她很好奇 - 当时还没有成为年轻女性的素质。虽然信仰会承认自己的好奇心就像是一种成瘾,但有限的叙述者可以迈出一步,向读者透露信仰不太可能表达出来,甚至在她自己的脑海中也不会表达出来。

第三人称有限公司的常见错误

If you’re a writer who’s making use of a third person limited narrator, there are a few pitfalls you should look to avoid — either because they break the reality of your viewpoint or hamper the narrative flow of your story.

Filtering the action

您的叙述者与您的主要角色非常接近(复数,因为您可以使用多个),因此,您可能会发现自己通过他们的意识将所有观察和行动背景下背景。在约翰·加德纳的小说艺术,他称这种为“过滤” - 他强烈建议作家从散文中取出。

The amateur writes: "Turning, she noticed two snakes fighting in among the rocks."

比较:“她转过身。在岩石中,两条蛇在战斗……”

Generally speaking — though no laws are absolute in fiction — vividness urges that almost every occurrence of such phrases as "she noticed" and "she saw" be suppressed in favor of direct presentation.

— John Gardner,小说艺术

与第一人称观点一样,如果有限的叙述者描述了一项动作(“两条蛇正在战斗”),读者已经将认为that the viewpoint character observed this detail. Therefore, any sort of filtering language will be largely unnecessary.

Did we mention head-hopping?

如果您已经阅读了我们以前关于第三人称写作的部分,那么您将非常熟悉“脱头”,您的叙述者揭示了非POV角色的想法或感觉。从某种意义上说,它们在多个字符的头之间跳动,而不是贴近他们的观点角色。

这是一个例子:

您的POV角色在场景中与她的牧师说话。你不应该写:

Father Walsh was reluctant to tell her the truth...

在写第三人称限制时,这是不好的形式,因为您的主角无法知道沃尔什神父不愿意 - 除非她是读者,在这种情况下,所有赌注都没有。

You can, however, demonstrate Father Walsh’s reluctance by employing some classicshow, don’t tell行动。您的POV角色可以观察到他避免眼神交流,停止和开始句子,或者用他的袖口烦躁 - 所有的回避手势都暗示不情愿。

当无所不知的叙述者发生时,头跳是不理想的 - 但是POV有限的灾难性灾难性。虽然现代编辑程序将检测到您何时在被动和主动时态之间转移,但当您不小心交换您的观点角色时,他们将无法警告您!因此,当您进行修改手稿时,请注意。

里德西庄园的谋杀案:一个有限的奥秘

还记得上一节中的无所不知的叙述者的插图示例吗?让我们再看一下这个故事,但从有限的角度来看。

第三人称有限公司|漫画展示了第三人称有限公司的各个方面

当然,还有一些书籍以多个第三人称叙述者为特色 - 一个受欢迎的例子是乔治·R·R·马丁的冰与火之歌系列。


If you're ready for a 'wider' viewpoint, head on to our next post on Third Person Omniscient. Enjoy!

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